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Biological Reasons

Glucose Theory – It states that we feel hungry when our blood glucose level is low.

Insulin Theory – It states that we feel hungry when our insulin level increases suddenly in our bodies. This theory indicates that we have to increase our insulin level in order to feel hungry.

Heat Production Theory – It states that we feel hungry when our body temperature drops and when it rises hunger decreases.This theory indicates that we eat more during winters.

Learned
As human beings, we cannot ignore psychological part, the learned and cognitive components of hunger. Hunger depends on the external time also. For eg. At 12 PM we feel hungry because it is lunch time. This is because of learned behavior. There are four basic tastes: sweet, sour, bitter and salty. People keep feeling hungry until these four tastes are satisfied.

Cognition
Satiety is the absence of hunger. There are two mechanisms: at brain level and at gastrointestinal level.

At brain level: There are two places in the hypothalamus: gives Ventromedial nuclei and Lateral hypothalamus. Ventromedial Nivea signal when to stop eating. Lateral hypothalamus gives a signal to start eating.

At gastrointestinal level: Satiety signals